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Classification and structure of microwave communication antennas

Click:48 Time:2020-08-20 09:31:00

The antenna system is an important part of the microwave relay communication system. The signal energy transmitted by the microwave equipment is sent and received point-to-point in free space through the antenna. The antenna is generally composed of a reflector, a feed source, and a mounting bracket, which are specifically distinguished by the following aspects.


The antenna used in the microwave relay communication system is divided into: A. Parabolic panel antenna; B. Parabolic grid antenna; C. Passive relay reflector;


The antenna used in the microwave relay communication system is divided into: A. feedforward parabolic antenna; B. rear feed Cassegrain antenna;


The antenna used in the microwave relay communication system is divided into: A. Operating frequency from 800M Hz ---- 52G Hz; B. 


Antenna diameter from 0.3M ---- 5. 0M;


The antenna used in the microwave relay communication system is divided into: A. Standard performance antenna: B. Low VSWR standard performance antenna; C. High performance antenna; D. Low VSWR high performance antenna : E. Ultra-high performance antenna: F. 


High cross polarization discrimination rate antenna;


The antenna used in the microwave relay communication system is divided into: A. pedestal-mounted antenna; B. pylon-mounted antenna;


Structural composition of microwave communication antenna


A. Antenna reflection surface: The antenna reflection surface is the main structure that transmits and receives microwave signal energy. 


The transmitted signal comes from the antenna feed and is reflected by the reflection surface and then emitted in parallel; the received signal is reflected by the reflection surface and then converges to the feed. The feed is delivered to the microwave equipment. The antenna reflecting surface presents different curvatures according to the different communication frequency bands; the diameter of the antenna reflecting surface is also different according to the different transmission distance and the requirements of the gain size. 


Moreover, according to the electrical performance requirements of various antennas, the structure of the antenna reflector is also different. Most antenna reflecting surfaces are integral structures. For large antennas with a diameter of 3.2m or more, some manufacturers’ antenna reflecting surfaces are divided into two-half structure or 8-lobe structure during production for the convenience of transportation. The split type is required for engineering installation. The reflecting surfaces are assembled together to form the whole reflecting surface.


B. Antenna feed: The antenna feed port is located at the focal point of the antenna reflection surface. The signal energy sent by the microwave equipment is sent to the antenna reflection surface through the feed and then transmitted in parallel to the antenna of the opposite station. On the contrary, the received microwave signal is sent to the microwave equipment through the feed source. Antenna feeds are divided into feed-forward feeds and back-fed feeds according to different antenna types, and are divided into single-polarized feeds and dual-polarized feeds according to the requirements of transmission capacity. The feed size of the large-diameter antenna is correspondingly larger. In order to ensure the stable installation of the feed in the antenna, 3 to 4 feed cables or rods are also equipped to fix the feed on the antenna reflection surface.


C. Antenna mounting rack: The antenna mounting rack is divided into a seat type mounting rack and a hanging type mounting rack. 


Mounting frame-generally used to install the antenna on the top platform of the computer room or on the open ground outside the computer room on the mountain. When the communication route is not blocked and the clearance is sufficient, the mounted antenna is used; the hanging mounting frame is used to The antenna is installed on the iron tower or on the roof pole. Both of these antenna mounting brackets can ensure that the antenna can be adjusted in a fixed range in both the horizontal and elevation directions.


D. Antenna rim and radome cloth: For high-performance antennas, both the antenna rim and cover cloth are applied. This technical measure first reduces the wind load of the antenna at the installation position; it prevents damage to the antenna by ice and snow in cold areas ; Prevent the influence of birds on the antenna; together with the absorption net inside the antenna enclosure, the electrical indicators such as the front and rear defense and directivity of the antenna are improved.


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